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I cannot now recall where I heard this, but someone pushed numbers around and it seems that radiolysis of water (breaking water apart, generally into protons and hydoxyl ions, usually by gamma rays or X-rays, but other radiation can cause this to occur as well) and other substances at depth in the Earth can produce the sort of chemical disequilibrium that chemosynthetic bacteria would employ both as an energy source and as source for needed nutrients.  Protons and sulfate ions are the two big ones in the discussion I remember; we know of archaeans that get by on just those ions in terms of energy source. 


Radiolysis will go on in within Earth for a long, long time, with thorium-232 having a half-life of 14 Gyr.  The amount of water in the mantle isn't something I was able to find estimates for, but there is some.  Whether or not you could get life started in the deep interior is unknown, but once it invades that part (survivors of organisms that rode the subducted oceanic plates down) it could be there for keeps.  You won't make metazoans that way, but the idea that every planet might have a deep biosphere of at least this sort is worth thinking about.

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Astrophysical Journal Letters paper on two detected black hole-neutron star merger events


... and the two events were only ten days apart.  Probably unreadable for most people, but this is the paper all other articles about this stuff are drawing from.  Open access.


If you do try reading it, the stuff likely to be of most interest (and perhaps most readable) is in section 5 and to a lesser extent in some parts of part 6, while the recap in part 7 states ultimate results with minimal background.

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  • 2 weeks later...
3 hours ago, archer said:


And inadvertently ticks off a lot of his employees and customers by thanking them for financing his junket into space....

And how long has he been funding Blue Origin?
Tesla paid for Elon Musk to launch HIS personal car into space for a grand tour of our local orbit
some people need to get a life
of course since he sold all interest in Amazon
How many will stop buying from Amazon or drop their Prime accounts?
not many is my guess, or enough to make a dent like what happened to Disney+ over Gina

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Slight correction. Bezos still owns a little over 10% of Amazon stock.


He's behind Musk, but he'll catch up. Like Musk is doing with Starlink, he's planning to put up a satellite internet network.

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